ICA2PVM
ICA2PVM The ERC's mission is to encourage the highest quality research in Europe through competitive funding and to support investigator-driven frontier research across all fields, on the basis of scientific excellence

Presentation

Call Identifier: FP7-PEOPLE-IDEAS-ERC-2012-StG
Project Reference: Grant Agreement No. 306622 - CA2PVM
Principal Investigator: Prof. Dr. Ing. Marco Paggi
Project Funding: 1.483.980,00 Euro
Contract Type: ERC Starting Grant
Start date: 01/12/2012
Duration: 60 months

Photovoltaics (PV) is one the most growing technology in the World for renewable, sustainable, non-polluting, widely available clean energy sources. To make it further sustainable and durable, the present project aims at developing unconventional simulation tools and experimental methods to effectively characterize and optimize the performance and the durability of photovoltaic systems subject to mechanical and environmental loadings. Research results regard the development of a novel multi-physics simulation method of PV modules integrating: (i) advanced structural mechanics models to compute the stress and deformation fields in PV laminates; (ii) geometrical multi-scale numerical schemes to solve thermal and moisture diffusion problems; (iii) nonlinear fracture mechanics formulations to simulate crack propagation in the solar cells; (iv) electric models to quantify the electric output of the device, also in the presence of moisture degradation and cracks in silicon. Target applications concern not only traditional ground-mounted PV modules, but also novel building-integrated PV solutions. Both traditional technologies based on mono- and poly-crystalline silicon semiconductors and innovative semi-flexible PV modules and thin film solar cells are investigated. Knowledge and technology transfer regard the development of simulation tools for industrial quality control to avoid over-conservative rejection of partially cracked PV modules, monitoring criteria for operating PV-plants to quantify the energy losses according to the causes, methods to improve PV production technologies, as well as new solutions to facilitate recycling of PV modules at the end of their lifetime.

Overview of the project aims and achievements

Mid-term scientific report

Project web-page in CORDIS

Research group

  • Prof. Dr. Ing. Marco Paggi (Principal Investigator)
  • Dr. Claudia Borri, Post-doc
  • Dr. Mariacristina Gagliardi, Post-doc
  • Dr. Irene Berardone, Post-doc
  • Ing. Saheed Olalekan Ojo, Post-doc
  • Dr. Pietro Lenarda, Post-doc
  • Ing. Valerio Carollo, PhD Student
  • Ing. Paolo Cinat, PhD Student
  • Dr. Ing. Mauro Corrado, Assistant Professor, Politecnico di Torino and Marie Curie Fellow at the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Lausanne, Switzerland)
  • Prof. Dr. Ing. Davide Bigoni, Visiting Professor, University of Trento (Trento, Italy)
  • Dr. Ing. Alessio Gizzi, Visiting Professor, Università Campus Bio-Medico of Rome (Rome, Italy)
  • Dr. José Reinoso, Visiting Professor, University of Seville (Seville, Spain)
  • Dr.-Ing. Pattabhi R. Budarapu, Post-doc from 02/03/2015 to 28/02/2017, now Professor at the Mahindra Ecole Centrale, India
  • Dr. Ing. Francesca Fantoni, Post-doc from 01/03/2016 to 28/02/2017, now Post-doc at University of Brescia, Italy
  • Dr. Lorenzo Morini, Post-doc, Post-doc from 18/01/2016 to 17/12/2016, now Marie Curie researcher at Cardiff University, UK
  • Ing. Andrea Infuso, PhD student from 01/03/2013-28/02/2015, Politecnico di Torino and Visiting Scholar at the University of Paris-Est (Marne-la-Vallée, France)

Laboratory

Experimental and computational research facilities are listed in the home-page of the research unit MUSAM. They include: Finite element (FEAP) and molecular dynamics (LAMMPS) software, a server for parallel computations, a 3D confocal-interferometric profilometer, a Scanning Electron Microscope with a micromechanical testing stage, a universal testing machine with a thermostatic chamber, a thermocamera, a photocamera for electroluminesce tests and a system for 3D displacement correlation. ICA2PVM

Plenaries, keynote lectures, invited talks in selected conferences

  • M. Paggi, J. Reinoso: Computational methods for fracture and contact at interfaces: cohesive zone model, phase field approach, micromechanics, Keynote lecture at the International Conference on Computational Contact Mechanics, 5-7 July 2017, Lecce (Italy) web-site
  • M. Paggi: Guidelines for EL outdoor Qualification of PV Systems, Invited lecture at the Intersolar Europe Conference and Exhibition, 30 May 2017, Munich (Germany) web-site
  • M. Paggi, A. Gizzi: Micromechanics and deformable excitable biological cells, Plenary lecture at the Lorentz Workshop Micro/Nanoscale Models for Tribology, 31 January - 3 February 2017, Leiden (The Netherlands) web-site
  • M. Paggi, A. Infuso: Flaw tolerance of continuum and discrete mechanical systems: the roles of heterogeneity and nonlocality, Opening lecture at the ECT* Workshop on New Frontiers in Multiscale Modelling of Advanced Materials, Trento, Italy, June 17-20, 2014.
  • P. Lenarda, M. Paggi: A geometrical multiscale numerical method for coupled hygro-thermo-elastic problems in layered materials, Invited talk at the Workshop State of the art and challenges in thermal and mechanical modelling of ceramic materials, Trento, March 20, 2015.
  • M. Paggi: Modelling and simulation of fracture in classical and hierarchical polycrystalline materials towards the design of super-resistant cutting tools, Invited lecture at the Special Interest Seminar on Simulation and Modelling in Hard Materials Euro PM2014 Congress & Exhibition, Salzburg, Austria, September 21-24, 2014.
  • M. Paggi: Modelling of cracking in PV modules: Physical aspects and Computational Methods, Opening lecture at the Workshop Measurements and Models for PV-Module analysis, Institute of Solar Energy Research, Hamelin, Germany, November 5, 2013.

Publications

Computational methods for bridging scales in the analysis of photovoltaic modules

  • P.R. Budarapu, J. Reinoso, M. Paggi (2017) Concurrently coupled solid shell based adaptive multiscale methods for fracture, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 319:338-365, doi:10.1016/j.cma.2017.02.023
  • M. Paggi, M. Corrado, I. Berardone (2016) A global/local approach for the prediction of the electric response of cracked solar cells in photovoltaic modules under the action of mechanical loads, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 168B:40-57, doi:10.1016/j.engfracmech.2016.01.018 (open access)
  • M. Paggi, M. Corrado, M.A. Rodriguez (2013) A multi-physics and multi-scale numerical approach to microcracking and power-loss in photovoltaic modules, Composite Structures, 95:630-638, doi:10.1016/j.compstruct.2012.08.014. Pre-print available at http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.7452v1 (open access repository)

Computational methods for fracture mechanics of solar cells

  • M. Paggi, J. Reinoso (2017) Revisiting the problem of a crack impinging on an interface: a framework for the interaction between the phase field approach for brittle fracture and the interface cohesive zone model, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 321:145-172, doi:10.1016/j.cma.2017.04.004
  • J. Reinoso, M. Paggi, C. Linder (2017) Phase field modeling of brittle fracture for enhanced assumed strain shells at large deformations: formulation and finite element implementation, Computational Mechanics, 59:981-1001, doi:10.1007/s00466-017-1386-3
  • P.R. Budarapu, J. Reinoso, M. Paggi (2017) Concurrently coupled solid shell based adaptive multiscale methods for fracture, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 319:338-365, doi:10.1016/j.cma.2017.02.023
  • A. Infuso, M. Corrado, M. Paggi (2014) Image analysis of polycrystalline solar cells and modeling of intergranular and transgranular cracking, Journal of European Ceramic Society, 34:2713–2722, doi:10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2013.12.051, Pre-print available at http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.0256
  • M. Paggi, A. Sapora (2013) Numerical modelling of microcracking in PV modules induced by thermo-mechanical loads, Energy Procedia, 38:506-515, doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2013.07.310 (open access)

Computational methods for interface delamination and thermo-elastic residual stress analysis

  • J. Reinoso, M. Paggi, A. Blazquez (2017) A nonlinear finite thickness cohesive interface element for modeling delamination in fibre-reinforced composite laminates, Composites Part B: Engineering, 109:116-128, doi:10.1016/j.compositesb.2016.10.042
  • M. Paggi, P. Wriggers (2016) Node-to-segment and node-to-surface interface finite elements for fracture mechanics, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 300, 540-560, doi:10.1016/j.cma.2015.11.023, Pre-print available at http://arxiv.org/abs/1604.05236
  • C. Borri, M. Paggi, J. Reinoso, F.M. Borodich (2015) Adhesive behaviour of bonded paper layers: mechanical testing and statistical modelling, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineering, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, in press.
  • M. Paggi, J. Reinoso (2015) An anisotropic large displacement cohesive zone model for fibrillar and crazing interfaces, International Journal of Solids and Structures, 69-70:106-120, doi:10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2015.04.042 (open access)
  • S.O. Ojo, M. Paggi (2016) A 3D coupled thermo-visco-elastic shear-lag formulation for the prediction of residual stresses in photovoltaic modules after lamination, Composite Structures, 157, 348-359, doi:10.1016/j.compstruct.2016.08.036
  • S.O. Ojo, M. Paggi (2016) A thermo-visco-elastic shear-lag model for the prediction of residual stresses in photovoltaic modules after lamination, Composite Structures, 136, 481-492, doi:10.1016/j.compstruct.2015.10.023
  • J. Reinoso, M. Paggi, R. Rolfes (2016) A computational framework for the interplay between delamination and wrinkling in functionally graded thermal barrier coatings, Computational Materials Science, 116, 82-95, doi:10.1016/j.commatsci.2015.08.031
  • J. Reinoso, M. Paggi (2014) A consistent interface element formulation for geometrical and material nonlinearities, Computational Mechanics, in press, doi:10.1007/s00466-014-1077-2, Pre-print available at http://arxiv.org/abs/1507.05168
  • A. Sapora, M. Paggi (2013) A coupled cohesive zone model for transient analysis of thermoelastic interface debonding, Computational Mechanics, 53:845-857, doi:10.1007/s00466-013-0934-8, Pre-print available at http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.0242

Multi-field computational methods for the simulation of ageing of photovoltaic modules

Image analysis techniques

  • A. Infuso, M. Corrado, M. Paggi (2014) Image analysis of polycrystalline solar cells and modeling of intergranular and transgranular cracking, Journal of European Ceramic Society, 34:2713–2722, doi:10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2013.12.051, Pre-print available at http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.0256
  • V. Gade, N. Shiradkar, M. Paggi, J. Opalewski (2015) Predicting the long term power loss from cell cracks in PV modules, IEEE 42nd Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC), June 14-19, 2015, New Orleans, USA, (p. 1-6), doi:10.1109/PVSC.2015.7355665

Model order reduction techniques

Morphology characterization and contact mechanics of rough and textured solar cell surfaces

Electric models for Silicon solar cells in the presence of partially conductive cracks

  • M. Paggi, I. Berardone, M. Martire (2016) An electric model of cracked solar cells accounting for distributed damage caused by crack interaction, Energy Procedia, 92C:576-584, doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2016.07.022
  • M. Paggi, M. Corrado, I. Berardone (2016) A global/local approach for the prediction of the electric response of cracked solar cells in photovoltaic modules under the action of mechanical loads, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 168B:40-57, doi:10.1016/j.engfracmech.2016.01.018 (open access)
  • I. Berardone, M. Corrado, M. Paggi (2014) A generalized electric model for mono and polycrystalline silicon in the presence of cracks and random defects, Energy Procedia, 55:22–29, doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.08.005 (open access)
  • M. Paggi, I. Berardone, A. Infuso, M. Corrado (2014) Electrical recovery and fatigue degradation phenomena in cracked silicon cells, Journal of Energy Challenges and Mechanics, 1, article 4 Link to the pdf (open access)

Non-conventional testing and new proposals for PV qualification standards: fatigue, impacts, fracture dynamics, accelerated ageing

  • M. Gagliardi, P. Lenarda, M. Paggi (2017) A reaction-diffusion formulation to simulate EVA polymer degradation in environmental and accelerated againg conditions, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 164:93-106, doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2017.02.014
  • M. Corrado, A. Infuso, M. Paggi (2017) Simulated hail impacts on flexible photovoltaic laminates: testing and modeling, Meccanica, 52:1425-1439, doi:10.1007/s11012-016-0483-2
  • F. Spertino, A. Ciocia, P. Di Leo, R. Tommasini, I. Berardone, M. Corrado, A. Infuso, M. Paggi (2015) A power and energy procedure in operating photovoltaic systems to quantify the losses according to the causes, Solar Energy, 118:313-326, doi:10.1016/j.solener.2015.05.003, Pre-print available at http://eprints.imtlucca.it/2709
  • M. Paggi, I. Berardone, A. Infuso, M. Corrado (2014) Fatigue degradation and electric recovery in Silicon solar cells embedded in photovoltaic modules, Scientific Reports, 4, paper no. 4506 doi:10.1038/srep04506 (open access)
  • M. Corrado, M. Paggi (2014) Nonlinear fracture dynamics of laminates with finite thickness adhesives, Mechanics of Materials, 54:1569-1581, doi:10.1016/j.mechmat.2014.07.012
  • M. Corrado, M. Paggi (2014) Dynamic nonlinear crack growth at interfaces in multi-layered materials, Procedia Materials Science, 3:1971-1976, doi:10.1016/j.mspro.2014.06.317 (open access)
  • M. Paggi, O. Plekhov (2014) On the dependency of the parameters of fatigue crack growth from the fractal dimension of rough crack profiles, Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 28:2059-2067, doi:10.1177/0954406213515643, Pre-print available at http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.0266

Reliability of new photovoltaic technologies (wearable electronics, Graphene-coated Silicon, ultra-thin solar cells, flexible PV)

  • M. Corrado, A. Infuso, M. Paggi (2017) Simulated hail impacts on flexible photovoltaic laminates: testing and modeling, Meccanica, 52:1425-1439, doi:10.1007/s11012-016-0483-2
  • J. Reinoso, M. Paggi, P. Areias (2016) A finite element framework for the interplay between delamination and buckling of rubber-like bi-material systems and stretchable electronics, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 36, 2371-2382, doi:10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2016.01.002
  • I. Berardone, J. Hensen, V. Steckenreiter, S. Kajari-Schröder, M. Paggi (2016) Simulation of spalling with a non-planar bi-layered interface due to the reuse of the substrate, Energy Procedia, 92C:764-772, doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2016.07.058
  • B. Javvaji, P.R. Budarapu, V.K. Sutrakar, D. Roy Mahapatra, M. Paggi, G. Zi, T. Rabczuk (2016) Mechanical properties of Graphene: molecular dynamics simulations correlated to continuum based scaling laws, Computational Materials Science, 125:319-327, doi:10.1016/j.commatsci.2016.08.016
  • P.R. Budarapu, B. Javvaji, V.K. Sutrakar, D. Roy Mahapatra, M. Paggi, G. Zi, T. Rabczuk (2016) Lattice orientation and crack size effect on the mechanical properties of Graphene, International Journal of Fracture, in press, doi:10.1007/s10704-016-0115-9
  • I. Berardone, S. Kajari-Schröder, R. Niepelt, J. Hensen, V. Steckenreiter, M. Paggi (2015) Numerical modelling and validation of thermally-induced spalling, Energy Procedia, 77:855-862, doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2015.07.121 (open access)
  • A. Infuso, M. Paggi (2015) Computational modeling of discrete mechanical systems and complex networks: where we are and where we are going, Frontiers in Materials, 2, paper no. 18, doi:10.3389/fmats.2015.00018 (open access)

Dissemination

Outreach activities

  • Stand "Pannelli solari, carta e adesivi: cosa hanno in comune? Ce lo spiega la meccanica" at BRIGHT! Night of Researchers in Tuscany, an event promoted by Marie Curie Actions and Tuscany Region, Lucca, Italy, September 25, 2015.
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  • Stand "Research on photovoltaics" at SHINE! Night of Researchers in Tuscany, an event promoted by Marie Curie Actions and Tuscany Region, Lucca, Italy, September 27, 2013.
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  • Poster presented at the Workshop L’avvenire della ricerca di eccellenza, an initiative of the European Research Council, Naples, Italy, October 29, 2013.
  • Presentation of the experimental laboratory MUSAM in a public meeting with Dr. Corrado Passera, former Minister of Economic Development and Minister of Infrastructures and Transports of the Italian Republic, Lucca, Italy, February 27, 2014.
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  • Presentation of the project activities at a meeting with the Director of the Institute for Energy and Transport of the Joint Research Centre (European Commission), Lucca, Italy, March 10, 2014.

Special sessions, symposia, conferences

  • Special session Material simulation for energy applications in the 1st International Symposium on Energy Challenges and Mechanics, July 8-10, Aberdeen, UK. Organizers D. Antoun (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA), L. De Lorenzis (TU Braunschweig, Germany), M. Paggi (IMT Lucca, Italy) and A. Piccolroaz (University of Trento, Italy).
  • Special session Numerical and experimental research on the durability of photovoltaic modules in the 1st International Symposium on Energy Challenges and Mechanics, July 8-10, Aberdeen, UK. Organizers: J. Reinoso (University of Hannover, Germany), M. Paggi (IMT Lucca, Italy) and F. Haase (Institute for Solar Energy Research, Hameln, Germany).
  • Minisymposium Fracture and Contact Mechanics for Interface Problems at the WCCM-ECCM-ECFD 2014 Congress, 2014, Barcelona, Spain. Organizers: M. Paggi (IMT Lucca, Italy), A. Carpinteri (Politecnico di Torino) and P. Wriggers (University of Hannover).
  • EUROMECH Colloquium 575 Contact Mechanics and Coupled Problems in Surface Phenomena. Organizers: M. Paggi (IMT Lucca, Italy), D.A. Hills (University of Oxford).
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Invited seminars

  • M. Paggi: Crack penetration or deflection at an interface: a new framework based on the phase field approach for brittle fracture and the interface cohesive zone model, Seminar at the Solid and Structural Mechanics Group of the University of Trento, Trento, Italy, June 1, 2017.
  • M. Paggi: Durability of photovoltaic modules: modeling, simulation and experiments, Colloquia Doctoralia at Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy, March 9, 2017.
  • M. Paggi: Durability of photovoltaic modules: modeling, simulation and experiments, Dipartimento dell'Ingegneria dell'Informazione, Università di Pisa, Pisa, Italy, October 26, 2016.
  • M. Paggi: Computational methods for interface mechanical problems, Scuola di Dottorato in Ingegneria Leonardo da Vinci, Università di Pisa, Pisa, Italy, April 15, 2016.
  • M. Paggi: Numerical methods for thermo-mechanics, fluid-structure interaction, and failure analysis Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania, Italy, December 4, 2015.
  • M. Paggi: Multi-field and multi-scale computational approach to design and durability of photovoltaic modules: project overview and achievements, Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy, October 21, 2015.
  • M. Paggi: Computational methods for nonlinear fracture mechanics problems with large displacements, Seminar at the Solid and Structural Mechanics Group of the University of Trento, Trento, Italy, September 28, 2015.
  • M. Paggi: Multi-physics Modelling of Photovoltaic Laminates, Seminar at the MUSIC Graduate School on Multiscale Methods for Interface Coupling, Institute of Continuum Mechanics, Leibniz University of Hannover, Hannover, Germany, May 18, 2015.
  • M. Paggi: New trends in computational modelling of interfaces, Seminar at the Laboratorio di Fisica Non Lineare e Modelli Matematici, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Roma, May 15, 2015.
  • M. Paggi: Nonlinear fracture dynamics of laminates with finite thickness adhesives, Seminar at the University of Seville, Seville, Spain, June 27, 2014.
  • M. Paggi: Multi-physics modelling of cracking in quasi-brittle materials for energy applications, Seminar at the University of Trento, Trento, Italy, June 18, 2014.
  • M. Paggi: Experimental evidence of electro-thermo-elastic coupling in quasi-brittle materials for energy applications, Seminar at the University of Trento, Trento, Italy, June 18, 2014.
  • M. Paggi: Quantitative analysis of cracking in in photovoltaic modules using a multi-physics approach, Seminar at the Institute of Solar Energy Research, Hamelin, Germany, June 3, 2014.
  • M. Paggi: An overview on contact and fracture mechanics for interface problems, Seminar at the University of Evry, Evry, France, May 23, 2014.
  • M. Paggi: Multi-scale and multi-physics models applied to interface problems, Seminar at the University of Paris-EST, Marne-La-Valléee, France, May 16, 2014.
  • M. Paggi: Mechanical challenges in the durability of photovoltaic modules, Seminar at the Institut für Mechanik of the Technical University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany, December 17, 2013.
  • M. Paggi: Recent advances of interface constitutive laws for Fracture Mechanics, Seminar at the Institute of Structural Mechanics of the Leibniz University of Hannover, Hannover, Germany, August 19-23, 2013.
  • M. Paggi: Emergent properties in interface mechanical problems: A paradigm of organized complexity, Seminar at the IMT Institute for Advanced Studies, Lucca, Italy, March 5, 2013.
  • M. Paggi: Physical modelling and computational strategies for 2D and 3D cohesive fracture and recent progresses towards multi-physics, Seminar at the University of Paris-EST, Marne-La-Vallée, France, January 21-25, 2013.

  • Some photos taken at (from left to right): University of Evry, Institute for Solar Energy Research Hameln.
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Seminars from experts organized at IMT Lucca

    For the abstracts of the seminars, visit the IMT seminar home page
  • Dr. M. Corrado, Politecnico di Torino, An XFEM strategy to analyse the scale-slenderness-reinforcement failure mode transitions in RC beams (February 27, 2014).
  • Prof. D. Bigoni, University of Trento, Configurational forces in elastic structures (March 17, 2014).
  • Dr. J. Reinoso, Leibniz University of Hannover, Advanced nonlinear three-dimensional finite element shell formulations for composite structures (March 20, 2014).
  • Prof. V.V. Mantic, University of Seville, FFM and related energetic approaches to the delamination and debond problems in composites (July 14, 2014).
  • Dr. G. Fiori, University of Pisa, Graphene-based solar cells (September 10, 2014).

Theses

  • P. Lenarda (2017) Modeling and Simulation of a Class of Nonlinear Coupled Reaction-Diffusion Problems for Green Applications, PhD Thesis in Computational Mechanics, IMT School for Advanced Studies Lucca. Advisor: Prof. M. Paggi.
  • O.S. Ojo (2016) Thermo-visco-elastic modeling of photovoltaic laminates: Advanced shear-lag theory and model order reduction techniques, PhD Thesis in Structural Engineering, Politecnico di Torino. Advisor: Prof. M. Paggi.
  • A. Infuso (2016) Silicon photovoltaics: experimental testing and modeling of fracture across scales, PhD Thesis in Structural Engineering, Politecnico di Torino. Advisor: Prof. M. Paggi.
  • I. Berardone (2016) Fracture Mechanics of Silicon: From durability of photovoltaic modules to the production of thin film solar cells, PhD Thesis in Structural Engineering, Politecnico di Torino. Advisor: Prof. M. Paggi.
  • A. Beltramo (2013) Monitoring of microcracking in photovoltaic modules with the electroluminescence technique, Bachelor Thesis in Energetics, Politecnico di Torino. Advisor: Prof. M. Paggi and Ing. I. Berardone. Ing. Beltramo is currently a student of a master program at the KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
  • D. Leone (2013) Modelling of the viscoelastic behaviour of materials used in photovoltaic modules, Master Thesis in Civil Engineering, Politecnico di Torino. Advisor: Prof. M. Paggi and Prof. Corrado.

Collaborations with universities and international associations

Endorsement from companies of the PV sector